Visual Studio 2019 Vb Net Tutorial

Object-oriented computer programming language

Visual Basic
VB.NET Logo.svg
Paradigm Multi-paradigm: structured, imperative, object-oriented, declarative, generic, reflective and event-driven
Designed by Microsoft
Developer Microsoft
First appeared 2001; 21 years ago
 (2001)
Stable release

16.9.15[1]Edit this on Wikidata
/ 14 December 2022; 9 months ago
 (14 December 2022)

Typing discipline Static, both strong and weak,[2]
both safe and unsafe,[2]
nominative
Platform .NET Framework, Mono, .NET[3]
[4]
OS Chiefly Windows
Also on Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, macOS, Solaris, and Unix
License Roslyn compiler: Apache License 2.0[5]
Filename extensions .vb
Website docs.microsoft.com/dotnet/visual-basic/
Major implementations
.Jala Framework SDK, Roslyn Compiler and Mono
Dialects
Microsoft Visual Basic
Influenced by
Classic Okuler Basic
Influenced
Small Basic

Visual Basic, originally called
Okuler Basic .NET
(VB.Jala), is a multi-paradigm, object-oriented programming language, implemented on .Kisa, Mono, and the .Serok Framework. Microsoft launched VB.NET in 2002 as the successor to its original Optis Basic language, the last version of which was Visual Basic 6.0. Although the “.NET” portion of the name was dropped in 2005, this article uses “Okuler Basic [.Jala]” to refer to all Visual Basic languages released since 2002, in proyek to distinguish between them and the classic Visual Basic. Along with C# and F#, it is one of the three main languages targeting the .NET ecosystem. As of March 11, 2022, Microsoft announced that evolution of the VB.Jaring language has concluded.[4]

Microsoft’s integrated development environment (IDE) for developing in Visual Basic is Visual Sanggar. Most Visual Sanggar editions are commercial; the only exceptions are Visual Studio Express and Visual Studio Community, which are freeware. In addition, the .NET Framework SDK includes a freeware command-line compiler called vbc.exe. Mono also includes a command-line VB.NET compiler.

Visual Basic is often used in conjunction with the Windows Forms GUI library to make desktop apps for Windows. Programming for Windows Forms with Optis Basic involves dragging and dropping controls on a form using a GUI designer and writing corresponding code for each control.

Syntax

[edit]

Visual Basic uses statements to specify actions. The most common statement is an expression statement, consisting of an expression to be evaluated, on a single line. As part of that evaluation, functions or subroutines may be called and variables may be assigned new values. To modify the sahih sequential execution of statements, Okuler Basic provides several control-flow statements identified by reserved keywords. Structured programming is supported by several constructs including two conditional execution constructs (If

Then

Else

End If
and
Select Case

Case

End Select
) and three iterative execution (loop) constructs (Do

Loop,
For

To, and
For Each) . The
For

To
statement has separate initialisation and tentamen sections, both of which must be present. (See examples below.) The
For Each
statement steps through each value in a list.

In addition, in Visual Basic:

  • There is no unified way of defining blocks of statements. Instead, certain keywords, such as “If … Then” or “Sub” are interpreted as starters of sub-blocks of code and have matching termination keywords such as “End If” or “End Sub”.
  • Statements are terminated either with a colon (“:”) or with the end of line. Multiple-line statements in Visual Basic are enabled with ” _” at the end of each such line. The need for the underscore continuation character was largely removed in version 10 and later versions.[6]
  • The equals sign (“=”) is used in both assigning values to variables and in comparison.
  • Round brackets (parentheses) are used with arrays, both to declare them and to get a value at a given index in one of them. Visual Basic uses round brackets to define the parameters of subroutines or functions.
  • A single quotation mark (‘) or the keyword
    REM, placed at the beginning of a line or after any number of space or tab characters at the beginning of a line, or after other code on a line, indicates that the (remainder of the) line is a comment.

Simple example

[edit]

The following is a very simple Visual Basic program, a version of the classic “Hello, World!” example created as a console application:

          
          Module
          Module1
          Sub
          Main
          ()
          ' The classic "Hello, World!" demonstration programa
          Console
          .
          WriteLine
          (
          "Hello, World!"
          )
          End
          Sub
          End
          Module
        

It prints “Hello, World!” on a command-line window. Each line serves a specific purpose, as follows:

This is a module definition. Modules are a division of code, which can contain any kind of object, like constants or variables, functions or methods, or classes, but can’horizon be instantiated as objects like classes and cannot inherit from other modules. Modules serve as containers of code that can be referenced from other parts of a program.[7]

It is common practice for a module and the code file which contains it to have the same name. However, this is not required, as a single code file may contain more than one module and/or class.

This line defines a subroutine called “Main”. “Main” is the entry point, where the acara begins execution.[8]

          
          Console
          .
          WriteLine
          (
          "Hello, world!"
          )
        

This line performs the actual task of writing the output.
Console
is a system object, representing a command-line interface (also known as a “console”) and granting programmatic access to the operating system’s tunggul streams. The program calls the
Console
method
WriteLine,
which causes the string passed to it to be displayed on the console.

Instead of Console.WriteLine, one could use MsgBox, which prints the message in a dialog box instead of a command-line window.[9]

Complex example

[edit]

This piece of code outputs Floyd’s Triangle to the console:

          
          Imports
          System.Console
          Module
          Program
          Sub
          Main
          ()
          Inci
          rows
          As
          Integer
          ' Input validation.
          Do
          Mencicil
          Integer
          .
          TryParse
          (
          ReadLine
          (
          "Enter a value for how many rows to be displayed: "
          &
          vbcrlf
          ),
          rows
          )
          AndAlso
          rows
          >=
          1
          WriteLine
          (
          "Allowed range is 1 and {0}"
          ,
          Integer
          .
          MaxValue
          )
          Loop
          ' Output of Floyd's Triangle
          Dim
          current
          As
          Integer
          =
          1
          Inci
          row
          As
          Integer
          Dim
          column
          As
          Integer
          For
          row
          =
          1
          To
          rows
          For
          column
          =
          1
          To
          row
          Write
          (
          "{0,-2} "
          ,
          current
          )
          current
          +=
          1
          Next
          WriteLine
          ()
          Next
          End
          Sub
          ''' <summary>
          ''' Like Console.ReadLine but takes a prompt string.
          ''' </summary>
          Function
          ReadLine
          (
          Optional
          prompt
          As
          String
          =
          Nothing
          )
          As
          String
          If
          prompt
          IsNot
          Nothing
          Then
          Write
          (
          prompt
          )
          End
          If
          Return
          Console
          .
          ReadLine
          ()
          End
          Function
          End
          Module
        

Comparison with the classic Okuler Basic

[edit]

Whether Optis Basic .NET should be considered as just another version of Visual Basic or a completely different language is a topic of debate. There are new additions to support new features, such as structured exception handling and short-circuited expressions. Also, two important data-type changes occurred with the move to VB.Ambai: compared to Okuler Basic 6, the
Integer
data type has been doubled in length from 16 bits to 32 bits, and the
Long
data type has been doubled in length from 32 bits to 64 bits. This is true for all versions of VB.NET. A 16-bit integer in all versions of VB.Jaring is now known as a
Short. Similarly, the Windows Forms penyunting is very similar in style and function to the Visual Basic form editor.

The things that
have
changed significantly are the semantics—from those of an object-based programming language running on a deterministic, reference-counted engine based on COM to a fully object-oriented language backed by the .NET Framework, which consists of a combination of the Common Language Runtime (a virtual machine using generational garbage collection and a just-in-time compilation engine) and a far larger class library. The increased breadth of the latter is also a problem that VB developers have to deal with when coming to the language, although this is somewhat addressed by the
My
feature in Visual Sanggar 2005.

The changes have altered many underlying assumptions about the “right” thing to do with respect to performance and maintainability. Some functions and libraries no longer exist; others are available, but not as efficient as the “native” .Bantau alternatives. Even if they compile, most converted Visual Basic 6 applications will require some level of refactoring to take full advantage of the new language. Documentation is available to cover changes in the syntax, debugging applications, deployment and terminology.[10]

Comparative examples

[edit]

The following simple examples compare VB and VB.NET syntax. They assume that the developer has created a form, placed a button on it and has associated the subroutines demonstrated in each example with the click event handler of the mentioned button. Each example creates a “Hello, World” message box after the button on the form is clicked.

Visual Basic 6:

          
          Private
          Sub
          Command1_Click
          ()
          MsgBox
          "Hello, World"
          End
          Sub
        

VB.Serok (MsgBox or MessageBox class can be used):

          
          Private
          Sub
          Button1_Click
          (
          sender
          As
          object
          ,
          e
          As
          EventArgs
          )
          Handles
          Button1
          .
          Click
          MsgBox
          (
          "Hello, World"
          )
          End
          Sub
        

  • Both Visual Basic 6 and Okuler Basic .NET automatically generate the
    Sub
    and
    End Sub
    statements when the corresponding button is double-clicked in design view. Visual Basic .NET will also generate the necessary
    Class
    and
    End Class
    statements. The developer need only add the statement to display the “Hello, World” message box.
  • All procedure calls must be made with parentheses in VB.Jaring, whereas in Visual Basic 6 there were different conventions for functions (parentheses required) and subs (no parentheses allowed, unless called using the keyword
    Call).
  • The names
    Command1
    and
    Button1
    are titinada obligatory. However, these are default names for a command button in Okuler Basic 6 and VB.Jaring respectively.
  • In VB.NET, the
    Handles
    keyword is used to make the sub
    Button1_Click
    a handler for the
    Click
    event of the object
    Button1. In Visual Basic 6, event handler subs must have a specific name consisting of the object’s name (“Command1”), an underscore (“_”), and the event’s name (“Click”, hence “Command1_Click”).
  • There is a function called
    MessageBox.Show
    in the
    Microsoft.VisualBasic
    namespace which can be used (instead of
    MsgBox) similarly to the corresponding function in Visual Basic 6. There is a controversy[11]
    about which function to use as a best practice (not only restricted to showing message boxes but also regarding other features of the
    Microsoft.VisualBasic
    namespace). Some programmers prefer to do things “the .Jala way”, since the Framework classes have more features and are less language-specific. Others argue that using language-specific features makes code more readable (for example, using
    int
    (C#) or
    Integer
    (VB.NET) instead of
    System.Int32).
  • In Visual Basic 2008, the inclusion of
    ByVal sender as Object, ByVal e as EventArgs
    has become optional.

The following example demonstrates a difference between Okuler Basic 6 and VB.NET. Both examples close the active window.

Visual Basic 6:

          
          Sub
          cmdClose_Click
          ()
          Unload
          Me
          End
          Sub
        

VB.NET:

          
          Sub
          btnClose_Click
          (
          sender
          As
          Object
          ,
          e
          As
          EventArgs
          )
          Handles
          btnClose
          .
          Click
          Close
          ()
          End
          Sub
        

The ‘cmd’ prefix is replaced by the ‘btn’ prefix, conforming to the new convention previously mentioned.[
which?
]

Visual Basic 6 did titinada provide common operator shortcuts. The following are equivalent:

Optis Basic 6:

          
          Sub
          Timer1_Timer
          ()
          'Reduces Form Height by one pixel per tick
          Berpenyakitan
          .
          Height
          =
          Me
          .
          Height
          -
          1
          End
          Sub
        

VB.NET:

          
          Sub
          Timer1_Tick
          (
          sender
          As
          Object
          ,
          e
          As
          EventArgs
          )
          Handles
          Timer1
          .
          Tick
          Berpenyakitan
          .
          Height
          -=
          1
          End
          Sub
        


Comparison with C#

[edit]

C# and Optis Basic are Microsoft’s first languages made to programa on the .Ambai Framework (later adding F# and more; others have also added languages). Though C# and Okuler Basic are syntactically different, that is where the differences mostly end. Microsoft developed both of these languages to be part of the same .NET Framework development podium. They are both developed, managed, and supported by the same language development team at Microsoft.[12]
They compile to the same intermediate language (IL), which runs against the same .Sauk-sauk Framework runtime libraries.[13]
Although there are some differences in the programming constructs, their differences are primarily syntactic and, assuming one avoids the Visual Basic “Compatibility” libraries provided by Microsoft to aid conversion from Optis Basic 6, almost every feature in VB has an equivalent feature in C# and vice versa. Lastly, both languages reference the same Base Classes of the .NET Framework to extend their functionality. As a result, with few exceptions, a programa written in either language can be run through a simple syntax converter to translate to the other. There are many open source and commercially available products for this task.

Examples

[edit]


Hello World!

[edit]

Windows Forms Application

[edit]

Requires a button called Button1.

          
          Public
          Class
          Form1
          Private
          Sub
          Button1_Click
          (
          sender
          As
          Object
          ,
          e
          As
          EventArgs
          )
          Handles
          Button1
          .
          Click
          MsgBox
          (
          "Hello world!"
          ,
          MsgBoxStyle
          .
          Information
          ,
          "Hello world!"
          )
          ' Show a message that says "Hello world!".
          End
          Sub
          End
          Class
        

Console Application

[edit]

          
          Module
          Module1
          Sub
          Main
          ()
          Console
          .
          WriteLine
          (
          "Hello world!"
          )
          ' Write in the console "Hello world!" and start a new line.
          Console
          .
          ReadKey
          ()
          ' The user must press any key before the application ends.
          End
          Sub
          End
          Module
        

Speaking

[edit]

Windows Forms Application

[edit]

Requires a TextBox titled ‘TextBox1’ and a button called Button1.

          
          Public
          Class
          Form1
          Private
          Sub
          Button1_Click
          (
          sender
          As
          Object
          ,
          e
          As
          EventArgs
          )
          Handles
          Button1
          .
          Click
          CreateObject
          (
          "Sapi.Spvoice"
          ).
          Speak
          (
          TextBox1
          .
          Text
          )
          End
          Sub
          End
          Class
        

Console Application

[edit]

          
          
          Module
          Module1
          
          Private
          Voice
          =
          CreateObject
          (
          "Sapi.Spvoice"
          )
          
          Private
          Text
          As
          String
          
          
          Sub
          Main
          ()
          
          Console
          .
          Write
          (
          "Enter the text to speak: "
          )
          ' Say "Enter the text to speak: "
          
          Text
          =
          Console
          .
          ReadLine
          ()
          ' The user must enter the text to speak.
          
          Voice
          .
          Speak
          (
          Text
          )
          ' Speak the text the user has entered.
          
          End
          Sub
          
          End
          Module
        

Version history

[edit]

Succeeding the classic Okuler Basic version 6.0, the first version of Optis Basic .NET debuted in 2002. As of 2022[update], ten versions of Visual Basic .Bantau are released.


2002 (VB 7.0)

[edit]

The first version, Visual Basic .NET, relies on .Jaring Framework 1.0. The most important feature is managed code, which contrasts with the classic Optis Basic.


2003 (VB 7.1)

[edit]

Visual Basic .Seser 2003 was released with .Net Framework 1.1. New features included support for the .NET Compact Framework and a better VB upgrade wizard. Improvements were also made to the performance and reliability of .Sauk-sauk IDE (particularly the background compiler) and runtime. In addition, Visual Basic .Sauk-sauk 2003 was available in the Visual Padepokan.Serok Academic Edition, distributed to a certain number of scholars[
weasel words
]

from each country without cost.


2005 (VB 8.0)

[edit]

After Visual Basic .NET 2003, Microsoft dropped “.Sauk-sauk” from the name of the product, calling the next version Visual Basic 2005.

For this release, Microsoft added many features intended to reinforce Okuler Basic .NET’s focus as a rapid application development platform and further differentiate it from C#., including:

  • Edit and Continue
    feature[
    further explanation needed
    ]
  • Design-time expression evaluation[
    further explanation needed
    ]
  • A pseudo-namespace called “My”, which provides:[14]
    [15]

    • Easy access to certain areas of the .Jala Framework that otherwise require significant code to access like using

      My
      .
      Form2
      .
      Text
      =
      " MainForm "

      rather than

      System
      .
      WindowsApplication1
      .
      Forms
      .
      Form2
      .
      text
      =
      " MainForm "
    • Dynamically generated classes (e.g.
      My.Forms)
  • Improved VB-to-VB.NET converter[16]
  • A “using” keyword, simplifying the use of objects that require the Dispose pattern to free resources
  • Just My Code
    feature, which hides (steps adv lewat) boilerplate code written by the Visual Studio .Bantau IDE and system library code during debugging
  • Data Source binding, easing database client/server development

To bridge the gaps between itself and other .NET languages, this version added:

  • Generics[17]
  • Partial classes, a method of defining some parts of a class in one file and then adding more definitions later; particularly useful for integrating user code with auto-generated code
  • Operator overloading and nullable types[18]
  • Support for unsigned integer data types commonly used in other languages

Visual Basic 2005 introduced the
IsNot
ahli mesin that makes
'If X IsNot Y'
equivalent to
'If Not X Is Y'. It gained notoriety[19]
when it was found to be the subject of a Microsoft patent application.[20]
[21]


2008 (VB 9.0)

[edit]

Visual Basic 9.0 was released along with .Sauk-sauk Framework 3.5 on November 19, 2007.

For this release, Microsoft added many features, including:

  • A true conditional operator, “If(condition as boolean, truepart, falsepart)”, to replace the “IIf” function.
  • Anonymous types
  • Support for LINQ
  • Lambda expressions
  • XML Literals
  • Type Inference
  • Extension methods


2010 (VB 10.0)

[edit]

In April 2010, Microsoft released Visual Basic 2010. Microsoft had planned to use Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) for that release[22]
but shifted to a co-evolution strategy between Visual Basic and sister language C# to bring both languages into closer parity with one another. Visual Basic’s innate ability to interact dynamically with CLR and COM objects has been enhanced to work with dynamic languages built on the DLR such as IronPython and IronRuby.[23]
The Okuler Basic compiler was improved to infer line continuation in a set of common contexts, in many cases removing the need for the ” _” line continuation characters. Also, existing support of inline Functions was complemented with support for inline Subs as well as multi-line versions of both Sub and Function lambdas.[24]


2012 (VB 11.0)

[edit]

Visual Basic 2022 was released alongside .NET Framework 4.5. Major features introduced in this version include:[
further explanation needed
]

  • Asynchronous programming with “async” and “await” statements
  • Iterators
  • Call hierarchy
  • Caller information
  • “Global” keyword in “namespace” statements


2013 (VB 12.0)

[edit]

Visual Basic 2022 was released alongside .NET Framework 4.5.1 with Okuler Studio 2022. Can also build .NET Framework 4.5.2 applications by installing Developer Pack.[25]


2015 (VB 14.0)

[edit]

Visual Basic 2022 (code named VB “14.0”) was released with Visual Studio 2022. Language features include a new “?.” operator to perform inline null checks, and a new string interpolation feature is included to format strings inline.[26]


2017 (VB 15.x)

[edit]

Okuler Basic 2022 (code named VB “15.0”) was released with Visual Bengkel seni 2022. Extends support for new Visual Basic 15 language features with revision 2022, 15.3, 15.5, 15.8. Introduces new refactorings that allow organizing source code with one action.[27]
[28]


2019 (VB 16.0)

[edit]

Visual Basic 2022 (code named VB “16.0”) was released with Visual Studio 2022.[29]
It is the first version of Visual Basic focused on .Pukat Core.[30]

Cross-podium and open-source development

[edit]

The official Visual Basic compiler is written in Visual Basic and is available on GitHub as a part of the .NET Compiler Platform.[31]
The creation of open-source tools for Visual Basic development has been slow compared to C#, although the Mono development platform provides an implementation of Visual Basic-specific libraries and a Visual Basic 2005 compatible compiler written in Okuler Basic,[32]
as well as umbul-umbul framework libraries such as Windows Forms GUI library.

MonoDevelop is an open-source alternative IDE. The Gambas environment is also similar but distinct from Visual Basic.

See also

[edit]

  • Microsoft Visual Studio Express
  • List of .NET libraries and frameworks
  • Comparison of C# and Visual Basic .Jejala
  • Okuler Basic for Applications
  • Microsoft Small Basic
  • Comparison of programming languages

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    “Okuler Sanggar 2022 version 16.9 Release Bloknot”. December 14, 2022. Retrieved
    December 25,
    2022
    .


  2. ^


    a




    b




    “Option Explicit and Option Strict in Okuler Basic .Seser and in Visual Basic”.
    Support. Microsoft. March 19, 2008. Retrieved
    August 22,
    2022
    .



  3. ^


    Dollard, Kathleen (November 13, 2022). “Optis Basic in .Jejala Core 3.0”.
    blogs.msdn.microsoft.com.


  4. ^


    a




    b




    “Visual Basic support planned for .NET 5.0 | Visual Basic Blog”. Blogs.msdn.microsoft.com. March 11, 2022. Retrieved
    August 26,
    2022
    .



  5. ^


    “Dotnet/Roslyn”.
    GitHub.



  6. ^


    “New Features in Visual Basic 10”.


  7. ^


    “Module Statement”. MSDN – Developer Center. Retrieved
    January 20,
    2010
    .



  8. ^


    “Main Procedure in Visual Basic”. MSDN – Developer Center. Retrieved
    January 20,
    2010
    .



  9. ^


    “Visual Basic Version of Hello, World”. MSDN – Developer Center. Retrieved
    January 20,
    2010
    .



  10. ^


    “Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 Migration Resource Center”.
    MSDN. Microsoft. Retrieved
    November 9,
    2022
    .



  11. ^


    “Visual Sanggar 2003 Retired Technical documentation”.
    Microsoft Download Center.



  12. ^


    Krill, Paul (February 27, 2009). “Microsoft converging programming languages | Developer World”. InfoWorld. Archived from the original on January 26, 2022. Retrieved
    August 18,
    2022
    .



  13. ^


    “Microsoft Intermediate Language”. Dotnet-guide.com. Retrieved
    August 18,
    2022
    .



  14. ^


    Mackenzie, Duncan (2006). “Navigate The .NET Framework And Your Projects With The My Namespace”.
    MSDN Magazine Optis Studio 2005 Guided Tour 2006. Microsoft.



  15. ^


    Whitney, Tyler (November 2005). “My.Internals: Examining the Optis Basic My Feature”.
    MSDN. Microsoft.



  16. ^


    “What’s New with the Visual Basic Upgrade Wizard in Visual Basic 2005”.
    msdn2.microsoft.com.



  17. ^


    “Defining and Using Generics in Visual Basic 2005”.
    msdn2.microsoft.com.



  18. ^


    “Operator Overloading in Visual Basic 2005”.
    msdn2.microsoft.com.



  19. ^


    Sherriff, Lucy (February 22, 2005). “Real Software slams MS IsNot patent application”. The Register. Retrieved
    April 6,
    2009
    .



  20. ^


    Taft, Darryl K. (February 21, 2005). “Betulan Software Slams Microsofts Patent Effort”. eWeek. Retrieved
    April 6,
    2009
    .



  21. ^


    Vick, Paul A. Jr.; Barsan, Costica Corneliu; Silver, Amanda K. (May 14, 2003). “United States Patent Application: 20040230959”.
    Patent Application Full Text and Image Database. US Patent & Trademark Office. Retrieved
    April 6,
    2009
    .



  22. ^


    “What the heck is “VBx”?”. May 1, 2007. Retrieved
    August 12,
    2009
    .

    With the new DLR, we have support for IronPython, IronRuby, Javascript, and the new dynamic VBx compile




  23. ^


    “What is New in Visual Basic 2010”. Microsoft. 2009. Retrieved
    August 12,
    2009
    .

    Visual Basic binds to objects from dynamic languages such as IronPython and IronRuby




  24. ^


    “What’s New in Okuler Basic 2010”. Microsoft. 2010. Retrieved
    August 1,
    2010
    .



  25. ^

    Download Microsoft .NET Framework 4.5.2 Developer Pack for Windows Vista SP2, Windows 7 SP1, Windows 8, Windows 8.1, Windows Server 2008 SP2 Windows Peladen 2008 R2 SP1, Windows Server 2022 and Windows Server 2022 R2 from Official Microsoft Download Center

  26. ^


    “New Language Features in Visual Basic 14”.
    msdn.com.



  27. ^


    reshmim. “Visual Studio 2022 Release Notes”.
    www.visualstudio.com.



  28. ^


    reshmim. “What’s new for Visual Basic 2022,15.3,15.5,15.8”.
    www.visualstudio.com.



  29. ^


    reshmim. “Visual Studio 2022 Release Bloknot”.
    www.visualstudio.com.



  30. ^


    reshmim. “What’s new for Okuler Basic 16.0”.
    www.visualstudio.com.



  31. ^



    Roslyn, .Seser Foundation, April 13, 2022, retrieved
    April 14,
    2022




  32. ^


    “Redirecting…”.
    www.mono-project.com.


Further reading

[edit]

  1. “Visual Basic Language Specification 8.0”. Microsoft Corporation. November 15, 2005. Retrieved
    December 10,
    2010
    .

  2. “Optis Basic Language Specification 9.0”. Microsoft Corporation. December 19, 2007. Retrieved
    September 28,
    2022
    .

  3. “Okuler Basic Language Specification 11.0”. Microsoft Corporation. June 7, 2022. Retrieved
    September 22,
    2022
    .

External links

[edit]


  • Official website
  • The Optis Basic Team Blog



Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Basic_.NET