Lab Engr: Mashood Ahmad
DESIGNING A PCB USING PROTEUS PCB stands for Printed Circuit Board. The naming convention will be clear once steps for the design are understood. On a lower level of project, PCBs are usually designed on a board whose one side is lined with copper. But on the industrial scale or on a professional level, it is preferred to have a double sided PCB. This also complexes the procedure through which PCBs are made. This document only emphasizes on PCB designing in PROTEUS 7.10 sp0. Other versions of PROTEUS may have similar steps but you might need to be cautious anyway.
1. Installing Proteus: Before installing the PROTEUS, make sure there aren’t any previous versions on PC. If there are any, uninstall them and restart the PC. Make sure to install the software from ‘administrator’ login. Then see the ‘readme.txt’ file that came with the PROTEUS setup and follow the instructions. If there nira’lengkung langit any instructions, then follow whatever is given in below paragraph to complete installation. In the setup folder, there will be the ‘setup’ file, a file with ‘lxk’ extension, another file starting from ‘LXK’ and a ‘crack’ folder in which there will be certain files that will be useful after installation. The ‘crack’ folder part might skip if there isn’falak any ‘crack’ folder. Run the ‘setup’ file to start the installation. During installation it will ask for a key, locate the file with ‘lxk’ extension. After completing the installation, open the file starting from ‘LXK’ and follow the procedure required by this file. Now, open the folder where PROTEUS has been installed. Also, open the crack folder or if there are any other folders in this folder. There will be files that will be present in both the installation folder and the crack folder. Replace the files of the installation folder with the files in crack folder. If there are other files in the crack folder that are not available in the installation folder, just find a place for them in the installation folder according to the extensions they are assigned.
2. Proteus ISIS: Open the ‘ISIS Professional’ from PROTEUS. This is the application where the simulations of the circuits can be tested. But the same file can be further processed to transform it into a layout. Layout is the final design which is needed in order to make the PCB of a circuit. To make the schematic, first we must have its raw design. Below is the schematic, that this documents uses to explain the steps to make the PCB.
DESIGNING A PCB USING PROTEUS
2.1 Making Schematic: To make the schematic, first add the suitable components in the ‘Component Kecenderungan’ pane. This can be done by selecting the ‘Component Tendensi’ icon indicated by the arrow number 1 in Figure-2. The ‘PANE’ will be empty in the mulai. To add the components click on the ‘P’ indicated by red square in the figure, and then type in the name to add the appropriate component. Fill in all the components required to complete the desired schematic. In our case, add the components as shown by figure to proceed further. The icon indicated by arrow number 2 is ‘Terminals Tren’. This contains the ‘Power’ and ‘Ground’ terminals required in the circuit. The ‘Ground’ terminal must be connected if it is required to generate a Power Plane. Power Plane will be explained later in the document.
Now, to place a component in the main window (right to the pane), just select the component from the pane. Then, click once in the main window. The component will appear instead of the ‘pencil’ pointer. Move the component to an appropriate location and then place it by clicking once more. To place a wire between the components, simply click on one of the component’s end using the ‘pencil’ pointer. Then, click on other’s component end. In this case, click and hold is not necessary. Complete the schematic given in Figure-1.
2.2 Adding Footprints: Adding or editing the footprints is the most crucial and important step in the making of the PCB. But before this, let us discuss how to change the values of the components in the schematic. To do this, double click on the text attached to the component placed in the main window. This will bring another window, so that the change in the component value can be made. To add or edit the footprint, double click on the component instead of the text attached to the component. A window similar to following figure will be opened.
DESIGNING A PCB USING PROTEUS If the default footprint is correct, don’t bother to change it. But if it is titinada, click on the question mark indicated by the red square in Figure-3 to change it. The footprint is searched by first erasing the actual footprint, then by choosing the appropriate category, type and sub-category. The most important issue in dealing with the footprints is its compatibility between the software and the real world components. To be certain of this, extra work is required before even starting the PCB designing on the software. For this schematic, just add the footprints of the components as follows: CONN-H2 > TBLOCK-I2. Category: Connectors, Type: Through Hole, Sub-category: Terminal Blocks DIODE > DO41. Category: Diodes
Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-category:
CAP > ELEC-RAD75M. Category: category: Radial Electrolytics
Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-
CAP > ELEC-RAD20M. Category: category: Radial Electrolytics
Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-
7805 > TO220. Category: Transistors
Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-category:
RESISTORS > RES40. Category: Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-category: Resistors 2N2222 > TO92-50. Category: Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-category: Transistors LED > SOD93. Category: Discrete Components, Type: Through Hole, Sub-category: Diodes Now, on this stage the simulation of the circuit can also be run. But for the current schematic, the software will not be able to generate any results, as the circuit is incomplete without a transformer which is left only because it doesn’t need to be included in the PCB design. All the steps in the ‘ISIS’ are finished. To proceed with the making of the PCB, we just need to transfer the ‘netlist’ to ‘ARES’. To do this, click on ‘Tools’>’Netlist to ARES’ or press Alt+A or just press the ARES icon on the right most side in the tab above the main window.
3. Proteus ARES: ‘ARES Professional’ will open automatically once the previous step is done. This is the application where the final layout will be made. Once the layout is made, the work on the software will be finished. Proceed with the following steps to make the PCB layout.
3.1 Making Schematic in ARES:
Now, this may seem hectic to make the schematic again but actually it is easier than in the ‘ISIS’. The ‘PANE’ in the ‘ARES’ looks like Figure-4. The icon indicated by arrow number 1 is ‘Component Mode’ that reveals the components pane. Arrow number 2 indicates ‘Track Mode’ which will be used for routing. Arrow number 3 indicates ‘2D Graphics Box Kecondongan’ which will be used for Power Plane Generation. Now, first select the ‘Component Kecondongan’ and start placing components in the main window. Make the schematic similar to the one in ‘ISIS’. Notice that as the components are placed in the main window, they mulai disappearing from the components pane. Also, notice that when the components that have the interconnections are placed in the main window, they show the green lines and yellow arrows like vectors. The vectors can be annoying a bit. To remove them, go to View > Layers and uncheck the option ‘vectors’ or ‘force vectors’. Complete the schematic before starting the routing. Air University
DESIGNING A PCB USING PROTEUS
3.2 Routing: Once the schematic is complete, the next step is to route the track. The kind of routing discussed in this document is manual routing. However, automatic routing can be done. For this go to Tools > Auto Router under the option ‘Auto Placer’. ‘Auto Placer’ makes the schematic and places the components by itself on the main window. But the arrangement of the components done by ‘Auto Placer’ might not be satisfying, so may be the case with the ‘Auto Routing’. But ‘Manual Routing’ has certain advantages to ‘Auto Routing’. The routes and their thickness are chosen as desired. ‘Auto Routing’ does titinada cause much trouble for smaller circuit but for larger circuits it is not recommended. To do ‘Manual Routing’, first of all uncheck Tools > Auto Trace Selection. This prevents from selecting default track for every route. Then select ‘Track Mode’ as explained by Figure-4. Choose ‘T50’ from ‘Traces PANE’ and make routes between the component’s pins just like the wiring was done in schematic. Place pencil on one of the component’s end, click and release, then take it to another component’s end and click there. Click on the second component’s end very carefully otherwise the route won’t finish. A route of blue color appears. If instead of the first single click, a double click is made, the routes color changes to red. To change it to blue, double click again. The red color is for the ‘Top Layer’ routing and the blue color is for the ‘Bottom Layer’ routing. And since the PCB in progress is single bottom layer PCB, all the tracks must be of blue color. T50 is the width of the track. The 50 associated is the width in ‘mills’. ‘Mills’ is a unit frequently used by PCB making softwares. 1000 mills equal 1 inch and 1 inch equals 2.54 cm or 25.4 mm. Using T50 track means we are actually using 1.27 mm wide track. The desired width can be converted from ‘mm’ to ‘mills’. Using T50 layer, make all the routes. Leave the routes which were supposed to be ground and the routes with the BJT terminals. Also, make sure that the routes do not intersect each other. If this happens, the copper in actual PCB will make short connections that were titinada desired in the circuit. Also, if a bypass is required, the symbols of the components can also be used. Take the route under a components symbol and the route will be completed without intersecting any other route. Use T15 track for the BJT components. The T15 track’s width is kept in accordance with the BJT pins’ width and the distance between these pins. The T50 track is wide enough that it will be merged when connected to BJT’s pin. The T15 track has a width of 0.381 mm and the BJT pins’ width is 0.56 mm. T20 track could also have been used here. Leave the ground wires to create the Power Plane discussed in the following section. Now, the schematic might resemble like the figure below.
3.3 Power Plane Generation: After all the rest of the tracks are complete, the only one left is the ground track. Instead of making a simple track for the ground, it is preferred to make it a Power Plane. The trick is to use all the rest of the copper on the PCB, except the tracks, as ground. This way, the node voltages are very Air University
DESIGNING A PCB USING PROTEUS easy to measure which implies the correct circuit. One doesn’t need to find the ground this way. To create Power Plane, create a board first. The board is the actual width and length of the PCB that is desirable. Select the ‘2D Graphics Box Mode’ highlighted in Figure-4. There will be a drop down button menu at the bottom left of the ARES window with ‘Top Copper’ written within it. Expand this button and select Board Edge. Create a Box on the main window which covers all the components. The width and the length in mills can also be read at the bottom of ARES window. This width and length is very important as it decides the actual size of the PCB in hardware. Then go to Tools > Power Plane Penggelora. A window with 4 options will appear. The first option is ‘Net’ with drop-down button. Click the button and select the ‘GND=Power’ net. If there isn’t any available, this means that during the schematic, the ground is missed. Now, the easy thing about Proteus is that there is no need of starting all of it from the top. Just go to the ISIS schematic. Add a ground, connect it and select the ‘Netlist to ARES’ option as discussed at the end of section 2.2 of this document. Now, in ‘ARES’ again select the ‘Power Plane Pengungkit’ option. Now, the option ‘GND=Power’ will be available. Select the option, and then in the ‘Layer’ option, select ‘Bottom Copper’. Let the ‘Boundary’ be ‘Default’. Also, the option given to ‘Edge Clearance’ by default i.e. ‘25th’ is fine. This is the clearance from the board edge. If the ‘OK’ button is available, click it otherwise press ‘Enter’. The Power Plane is now created. To delete the Power Plane, place the mouse pointer on the inner side of the PCB board drawn and find the location where the mouse pointer icon changes into a ‘hand’ icon. Then right click once, a list will appear, select delete object or right click twice to delete. The only annoying thing after this will be the track to ‘Power Plane’ clearance. This can be changed accordingly by selecting Technology > Design Rules. Change the ‘Trace-Trace’ clearance to change the above width. Now, the schematic will look like Figure-6. To print the layout, go to Output > Print, uncheck all the layers except ‘Bottom Copper’ and to reassure that the footprints doesn’t change, match the type of the paper, on which the print is going to be, from printer options e.g. A4. If printer is not available on the same PC, and Proteus is not installed in the PC with the printer. Take out a print in PDF form by utilizing softwares which allow the prints to be converted into PDF. But, be cautious, and before printing on actual paper, again select A4 or the type of paper, the print is going on to be.
4. Making PCB: The print must be printed on a copper board. This can’n be done directly. Also, simple A4 paper won’falak help. The print must be taken on ‘Glossy Sheet’ commonly known as ‘Sticker Sheet’ or ‘Sticker Paper’. One side of the sticker sheet is rough and may be white. The other side has a thin plastic sheet on it, very thin that is not easily noticeable. The other thin plastic sheet, if present, is to keep this side safe and is noticeable and can also be peeled. It should be peeled before the print. After taking the print on this side, press it against the copper side of the PCB board using Iron. Make sure that all the print is transferred onto the copper before removing the sheet. Because a circuit is printed Air University
DESIGNING A PCB USING PROTEUS on a board, that’s why it is called Printed Circuit Board commonly called PCB. See Figure-7 for how the print is going to be. After the print is transferred onto the copper, darken the tracks using a Permanent Marker. If inconvenient do not use marker on the Power Plane. The print and the marker are going to act as insulation when the board will be dipped in FeCl3 solution. All the copper where there is no track or power plane must dissolve. The remaining copper are the wires of the circuit, they connect the components and make a whole circuit. The FeCl3 solution must be a 1:1 with water. Generally ¼ kg of powdered FeCl3 is dissolved in ¼ kg of boiling water. The boiling water helps the reaction of copper with FeCl3. 5 to 10 PCBs can be made using this solution. And if lesser copper is needed to be removed, the number of PCBs that can be made increases. After removing unwanted copper, clean the PCB and remove the marker or print using arwah. Then drill the PCB where the components pins are to be soldered. The drilling points will be prominent in the print and thus on PCB. Another terminology to be aware of in the PCB business is jumper. Jumper is simply a wire that can’t be traced during the PCB. For it, drill extra holes and use an external wire and tambal it to complete the circuit. The PCB will now be complete. Now, connect the circuit with the supply and test it. In this case the circuit is an AC to DC converter and the BJT circuit will allow us to know whenever the circuit is on i.e. LED will blink. So, for the first connector, connect it to an AC transformer that steps down a 220V AC into 12V AC and the output from the second connector will be 5V DC.
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